如何运用UVC深紫外高效灭杀COVID-19病毒?

行家说LED产品 · 2020-05-18

For many decades, UV light has been a known disinfectant for air, water and surfaces that can help to mitigate the risk of acquiring or transmitting an infection. Widely used in hospitals, water treatment plants and laboratories, UV disinfection is now moving into many more mainstream application areas. For example, airlines are beginning to fit restrooms with UV lighting while not in use; most water purification companies are adding a UV option for point-of-use (POU) drinking water applications; and many air purification systems are adding UV to boost airborne disinfection. The topic of surface disinfection exploded in 2020 with the COVID-19 pandemic, and today just about everyone is learning about the effectiveness of UV in disinfection.

几十年来,紫外线一直作为已知的空气、水和表面消毒技术,可以帮助降低感染或传播的风险。紫外线消毒广泛应用于医院、水处理厂和实验室,现在正进入更多更加主流的应用领域。例如,航空公司开始在卫生间停用时使用紫外线灯进行消毒;大多数水净化公司都增加了用于饮用水使用点(POU)的UV选项;许多空气净化系统都加入了紫外线来促进空气消毒。随着2020年COVID-19大流行,表面消毒的话题爆发,今天几乎每个人都在学习紫外线消毒的有效性。

The key to UV disinfection

紫外线消毒的要诀

The key to disinfection using UV energy is to have the proper wavelength and dosage to deactivate pathogens. Most pathogens are responsive to very specific wavelengths of energy, almost all within the UV-C wavelength band between 200-300 nm. And not only is the wavelength important, but the amount of energy the target receives is also critical. The “deactivation” energy – or the dosage amount needed to ensure a certain log percentage decrease in activity, is measured in mJ/cm2. If that surface or piece of equipment does not receive the correct wavelength and dosage, then disinfection is not assured. The type and amount of energy needed was well documented by a study sponsored by the IUVA organization titled:  “FLUENCE (UV DOSE) REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE INCREMENTAL LOG INACTIVATION OF BACTERIA, PROTOZOA, VIRUSES AND ALGAE”.

利用紫外线消毒的关键是要有合适的波长和剂量来灭活病原体。大多数病原体对特定波长的能量有反应,几乎都在200-300纳米的UV-C波段。不仅波长很重要,目标接收到的能量也很重要。“失活”能量——或确保一定对数百分比的活性降低所需的剂量,以mJ/cm2计量。如果该表面或设备没有收到正确的波长和剂量,那么消毒是没有保证的。由IUVA组织赞助的一项名为“为实现细菌、原生动物、病毒和藻类的渐次灭活所需的紫外线剂量”的研究很好地记录了所需的能量类型和数量。

Ensuring proper UV dosage

确保适当的紫外线剂量

So the question becomes – how do you insure proper dosage? The number of disinfection units one can buy has increased exponentially over the past 10 years. The key in ensuring proper disinfection is making sure the UV-C energy is spread uniformly throughout the reaction chamber – whether the target area is air, water or a surface. Historically, the source of this UV-C energy has been a Mercury type lamp – which look similar to a fluorescent bulb. These tend to be large, fragile, and have disposal issues. More recently, UV-LEDs have come onto the scene and are mercury free and more energy efficient, however, the light tends to be concentrated in a near point source. So – how to you efficiently spread this UV-LED light?

那么问题是如何才能保证合适的剂量?在过去的10年里,人们可以买到的消毒设备的数量呈指数级增长。确保正确消毒的关键是确保UV-C能量均匀地散布在整个反应室——无论目标区域是空气、水还是表面。过去,这种UV-C能量的来源是一种水银灯——它看起来像一个荧光灯。这些往往是大的,易碎的,并存在处置问题。近来,UV-LEDs出现了,它不含汞,更节能,然而,光线往往集中在近点光源。那么,如何有效地传播这种UV-LED光呢?

Due to UV-C aggressive behavior to most plastic materials, most UV reaction chambers are made of metal such as aluminum or stainless steel. There are multiple problems with these materials – namely their reflectivity is modest (between 30-70%) and their reflection is mostly specular – which means energy bounces off at the angle that it hits the surface (like a billiard ball hitting a bumper). This specular reflection leads to so-called “hot spots” or “cold spots” where energy levels are well above or well below the dosage needed. Thus, to ensure proper spreading of the UV energy and thus the dosage, energy needs to bounce off the surface many times (every time losing up to 70% of its energy – or an average of 2-5 bounces) so that all angles are covered. This ends up requiring a lot of total energy due to these inefficiencies.

由于UV- C对大多数塑料材料的侵蚀作用,大多数UV反应室是由铝或不锈钢等金属制成的。这些材料有诸多问题——即它们的反射率不高(在30-70%之间),而且它们的反射主要是镜面反射——这意味着能量以它接触表面的角度反弹(就像台球撞到保险杠一样)。这种镜面反射会导致所谓的“热点”或“冷点”,这些地方的能量水平远远高于或低于所需的剂量。因此,为了确保紫外线能量和剂量的适当传播,能量需要多次从表面反弹(每次损失高达70%的能量-或平均2-5次反弹),以便覆盖所有角度。由于这些低效率,这将需要大量的总能量。

Using microporous PTFE

利用微孔聚四氟乙烯PTFE

The more sensible solution is Porex Virtek® microporous PTFE, which unlike many polymer materials, does not break in the 200-300 nm UVC range. Porex Virtek PTFE is HIGHLY REFLECTIVE MEDIA, up to 97% in the UV-C range – meaning the UV energy can bounce off the surface multiple times (only losing 3% per bounce or lasting an average of 33 reflections) until it hist its intended target (i.e. the pathogen). Secondly, Porex Virtek PTFE is almost an 100% diffuse reflectance – which means that, when the UV energy strikes the surface, it is reflected in a random diffuse pattern. Therefore, regardless of the angle with which the light hits the surface, the UV energy is reflected uniformly in all directions.   Watch a demonstration of this reflectivity in the video below:

更合理的解决方案是Porex Virtek®微孔PTFE,它不像许多聚合物材料,在200-300纳米UVC范围内不会断裂。Porex Virtek PTFE是一种高反射介质,在UV- C范围内高达97%,这意味着UV能量可以从表面多次反弹(每次反弹仅损失3%或平均持续33次反射),直至达到预定目标(即病原体)。其次,Porex Virtek PTFE几乎是100%漫反射——这表明,当紫外线照射到表面时,它会以一种随机的漫反射模式反射。因此,不管光照射表面的角度如何,紫外线能均匀地向各个方向反射。下面的视频演示了这种反射率:

What this ends up meaning is this – much less initial UV energy is needed since the surface reflectivity is so high and a uniform dosage will occur since energy is reflected in all directions. Some manufacturers in this space have claimed needing several less UV-LEDs or being able to use lower wattage LEDs in their design when using Porex Virtek PTFE to line their reactor versus other materials – saving both money and energy and ensuring the safety of the end product.

这意味着,由于表面反射率如此之高,而且能量被反射到各个方向,所以所需的初始UV能量要少得多,而且剂量也会统一。该领域的制造商表示,使用Porex Virtek PTFE时需要的UV-LEDs更少,或在他们的设计中使用的led瓦数更低——节省资金和能源的同时,确保了最终产品的安全性。

I’m so proud to say that our POREX® Virtek PTFE makes the world safer, healthier and more productive by setting a new standard of efficiency in disinfection equipment designed to destroy the COVID-19 virus and flatten the curve. Our reflective media helps to ensure these disinfection chambers are delivering the proper amount of UVC energy to every nook and corner to insure pathogen deactivation.

很自豪地说,我们的POREX®Virtek PTFE通过设立新的消毒设备效率标准来消灭COVID-19新冠病毒,压平曲线控制疫情,从而使世界更安全、更健康、更高效。我们的反射介质有助于确保这些消毒室提供适量的紫外线辐射能量覆盖到每个角落,以确保病原体失活。

作者:Gerry DiBattista

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文章来源: 博滤克斯